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Izibalo ze-ADHD 2021

Izibalo ze-ADHD 2021Iindaba

Yintoni i-ADHD? | Iqheleke kangakanani i-ADHD? | Izibalo ze-ADHD yabantwana | Izibalo zolutsha ze-ADHD | Izibalo zabantu abadala ze-ADHD | I-ADHD kwigumbi lokufundela | Unyango lwe-ADHD | Uphando

Umntwana ongazinzanga, ophazamiseka lula uqhelekile kunale, ngakumbi kwinqanaba lobudala bokuhamba isikolo. Nangona kunjalo, xa ezi zenzo ziphazamisa umsebenzi wakhe wesikolo kwaye zikhokelela kululeko oluqhelekileyo, abazali banokuzibuza ukuba ingaba ikhona enye into kule ndlela yokuziphatha kunabantwana nje abangabantwana. Intsingiselo yokunqongophala kwe-hyperactivity (ADHD) sesinye sezona ngxaki zixhaphakileyo ze-neurodevelopmental phakathi kwabantwana base-US, njengoko kuxhaswa ziinombolo ze-ADHD kwisikhokelo sethu esingezantsi. Ngethamsanqa, kukho amayeza amaninzi kunye neentlobo zonyango lokuziphatha ukunceda abantwana kunye nabantu abadala abane-ADHD.



Ezinxulumene: Ngaba umntwana wakho uchazwa gwenxa nge-ADHD?



Yintoni i-ADHD?

Intsingiselo yokuphazamiseka kwintsholongwane (ADHD) sisifo esiqhelekileyo esibhalwe ngu Iphethini eqhubekayo yokungaqwalaseli kunye / okanye i-hyperactivity-impulsivity ophazamisa ukusebenza okanye ukukhula. Iimpawu zokuziphatha, okanye iimpawu, ze-ADHD zibandakanya ukungakhathaleli okungapheliyo, ukungasebenzi kakuhle, kunye nokunyanzeliswa. Uninzi lufunyaniswa lune-ADHD njengabantwana, njengoko iimpawu ziba phambili kuphuhliso lwakwangoko nakumsebenzi wokufunda. Iimpawu ze-ADHD zinokuqhubeka nokuba mdala kwaye zichaphazele ubudlelwane boluntu kunye nokusebenza kwezemfundo kunye nokusebenza.

I-ADHD kukuphazamiseka kwemithambo-luvo, nangona oyena nobangela kusafuneka ugqityiwe, utsho UGabriel Villarreal , LPC, umcebisi kwi-ADHD Counselling kwiRoanoke Valley eVirginia. Into esiyaziyo kukuba iyenzeka xa ukukhula kwangaphambili kwecortex kushiyeka ngasemva kwengqondo.



Okokuqala nje sinokukufumanisa oku kungafaniyo yiminyaka emi-3, utshilo uVillarreal. Nangona kunjalo, [abantu abane-ADHD] bakwanokunqongophala okanye kungabi lula njengokuvelisa ii-neurochemicals kwingqondo, ngakumbi i-dopamine kunye ne-norepinephrine. Ixesha langaphambili linoxanduva lokuqwalaselwa, ukuqhuba kunye nenkuthazo. Eyokugqibela, inoxanduva lokudala ukuzola, yile nto inoxanduva ngokuyinxenye ku [hyperactivity].

Iqheleke kangakanani i-ADHD?

  • Uphando olwenziwe kwihlabathi liphela lubonakalisile ukuba ukwanda kwe-ADHD kuphezulu kumazwe anengeniso ephezulu. ( Intsilelo yokuqwalaselwa kwe-ADHD kunye nokuphazamiseka kwengqondo, Ngo-2017)
  • Ubuninzi be-ADHD yobomi be-ADHD phakathi kwabantwana bukhula ngoqikelelo lwamva nje nge-11%. (Iziko leSizwe lezeMpilo yeNgqondo, 2017)
  • Kuqikelelwa ukuba kwizigidi ezi-6.1 abantwana baseMelika abaneminyaka emi-2 ukuya kweli-17 ubudala abakhe bafumanisa isifo se-ADHD, abamele i-9.4% yeliqela leminyaka yobudala kwilizwe liphela ngo-2016. (Ijenali yoNyango loMntwana oSebenzayo kunye nePsychology yoLutsha , 2018)
  • Amakhwenkwe angaphezu kwamathuba aphindwe kabini kunamantombazana afunyenwe ene-ADHD. ( Ijenali yoNyango loMntwana oNyangiweyo kunye nePsychology yoLutsha , 2018)
  • Ukuxhaphaka kwe-ADHD yabantu abadala kuqikelelwa kwi-2.5%. (Ikholeji yaseRoyal of Psychiatrists, 2009)
  • Ubuninzi be-ADHD yobomi be-ADHD kubantu abadala abaneminyaka eyi-18 ukuya kwi-44 yeminyaka yobudala kuqikelelwa ukuba yi-8.1%, ngoku ukuxhaphaka okukhoyo kuqikelelwa ukuba yi-4.4%. (Iziko leSizwe lezeMpilo yeNgqondo, 2017)

Izibalo ze-ADHD ebantwaneni

  • Ipesenti yabantwana ekhe yafunyanwa ine-ADHD inyuka kunye nobudala. Uphando lubonisa i-2.4% (388,000) yabantwana abaneminyaka emi-2 ukuya kwemi-5 ubudala, kunye ne-9.6% (2.4 yezigidi) yabantwana abaneminyaka emi-6 ukuya kweli-11 ubudala baye bafumanisa ukuba bane-ADHD.
  • Iminyaka yobudala yokufumana isifo kwi-ADHD eqatha yiminyaka emi-4 ubudala.
  • Iminyaka yobudala yokufumana isifo kwi-ADHD yokumodareyitha yiminyaka emi-6 ubudala.
  • Iminyaka yobudala yokufumana isifo kwi-ADHD ethambileyo yiminyaka esi-7 ubudala.

( Ijenali yeAmerican Academy yaBantwana kunye neengqondo zaBafikisayo, Ngo-2014 no-2018)

Izibalo ze-ADHD kulutsha

La manani alandelayo amele ipesenti eqikelelweyo ye- abakwishumi elivisayo abane-ADHD ngokweqela leminyaka:



  • Iminyaka ye-13 ukuya kwe-14: 8.8%
  • Iminyaka eyi-15 ukuya kwe-16: 8.6%
  • Iminyaka eyi-17 ukuya kwe-18: 9%
  • Kuwo onke amatyala e-ADHD yokufikisa, i-4.2% ibonakalise ukungahambi kakuhle. Iikhrayitheriya zokuthothisa zazisekwe kuhlelo lwesine lweDiagnostic kunye neNgcaciso yeNcwadi yeNgxaki yokuPhazamiseka kwengqondo (DSM-IV).

( Ijenali yeAmerican Academy yaBantwana kunye neengqondo zaBafikisayo, Ngo-2010)

Izibalo ze-ADHD kubantu abadala

Ukuxhaphaka kwe-ADHD phakathi kwabantu abadala kwakuyi-4.4% e-US ukusukela ngo-2001-2003, ngokutsho kweHarvard Medical School. Nangona kunjalo, ireyithi ye- I-ADHD kubantu abadala kungenzeka ukuba uxelwe njengama-85% abantwana abane-ADHD banokuba nengxaki njengabantu abadala. Iikhrayitheriya zokuchonga i-ADHD zaqala zaphuhliselwa abantwana, kwaye ke, ukuxilongwa kwe-ADHD phakathi kwabantu abadala kukhula amatyeli amane ngokukhawuleza kunokuchongwa kwe-ADHD phakathi kwabantwana eMelika ( UJAMA Psychiatry, 2019) . La manani alandelayo abonisa ipesenti eyaziwayo yabantu abadala abane-ADHD kwiqela ngalinye leminyaka:

  • Iminyaka eyi-18 ukuya kuma-24: 4.5%
  • Iminyaka engama-25 ukuya ku-34: 3.8%
  • Iminyaka engama-35 ukuya kwengama-44: 4.6%

(Isikolo seHarvard Medical, 2007)



Uphando lubonisa ukuba uninzi lolutsha olune-ADHD luya kuba ne-ADHD njengabantu abadala, utsho UNekeshia Hammond , I-Psy.D, ugqirha wezengqondo kwiHammond Psychology kunye ne-Associates eFlorida. Enye into ebalulekileyo kulutsha ukuyenza kukulawula iimpawu ze-ADHD, ezinokuthi zibe nefuthe elihle kwiziphumo zabantu abadala. Ngokwe-Anecdotally, abanye abantu abadala baye bachaza ukuba banengxaki yokuphazamiseka ekusebenzeni kuba bafundile izinto ezinokubangela kunye neendlela zokumelana neempawu zabo ze-ADHD.

Abanye abantu abadala ababesele befumanekile ukuba bane-ADHD baye bafunda ukumelana neempawu zabo kakuhle kwaye abahlangani neekhrayitheriya ze-ADHD kamva ebomini babo. Abayi kudibana 'neenqobo ezipheleleyo' ze-ADHD (basenokuba nazo ezinye zeempawu zokuqwalaselwa, kodwa abonelanga ukufumana ukuxilongwa), utshilo uGqirha Hammond. Uninzi lophando lubonisa ukuba i-ADHD ayenzi ngokwenene yiya kukude , ’Kodwa ngakumbi abantu abadala baxela iimpawu ezimbalwa. Umzekelo, iimpawu zokungasebenzi kakuhle zihlala zincipha kubudala. Kuphela li-11% labantu abadala abane-ADHD abafumana unyango.



Ukongeza, abanye abantu abadala banokungafunyanwa kwaye ngenxa yoko banganyangwa ngenxa yeemeko zempilo yengqondo ezenzeka kunye ezifihla iimpawu ze-ADHD. Oku kubandakanya:

  • Ukuxhalabisa: 47%
  • Ukuphazamiseka kwemo: 38%
  • Ukulawula ukuqinisa: 20%
  • Ukuphazamiseka gwenxa kweziyobisi: 15%

(Umlingane woKhathalelo oluSisiseko kwiJenali yoNyango lwezeMpilo, 2009)



I-ADHD kwigumbi lokufundela

Ngamanye amaxesha abantwana banokuphazamisa okanye 'baphalaze' iimpendulo rhoqo, ezichaphazela nokunxibelelana kwezentlalo, utshilo uGqirha Hammond. Ngamanye amaxesha, olunye ulutsha lunokuba nengxaki yokuzeyisa, olukhokelela kwingxabano yomlomo okanye yomzimba nabanye abafundi.

Uthi amava emfundo yomntwana ngamnye ahlukile. Abanye abantwana bayasokola kwizifundo ngenxa yobunzima obubonakalayo kunye / okanye ukungakhathali, ngelixa abanye abafundi abaye bafunda ukumelana neempawu ze-ADHD banokufumana ukuphazamiseka okuncinci kwizifundo, utshilo.



Izikolo zinokuhlala abantwana abane-ADHD ngohlengahlengiso kwigumbi lokufundela, utshoUGqirha Hammond. Eminye imizekelo yohlengahlengiso ibandakanya, kodwa ayikhawulelwanga: ukuthatha ikhefu elongeziweyo, amalungiselelo okuhlala abelweyo (umz. Ukuhlala kufutshane notitshala), ixesha elongeziweyo kwiimvavanyo, imibuzo, kunye nokunikezelwa, kunye nokuthatha iimvavanyo kwindawo eyahlukeneyo yokunciphisa iziphazamiso .

Uphando lukaZwelonke lowe-2014 loLwazi kunye noNyango lwe-ADHD kunye neTourette Syndrome luchonge ukuba uninzi lwabafundi abane-ADHD (i-69.3%) bafumana enye okanye ezininzi iinkonzo zesikolo. Izicwangciso zemfundo ezizodwa (IEP) kunye necandelo lama-504 zizicwangciso zeenkonzo zesikolo ezinokubakho zabafundi abaneemfuno zemfundo ezizodwa okanye iimfuno ( Ijenali yokuPhazamiseka kwengqondo , 2018).

Ngokwamaziko oLawulo lweNtsholongwane kunye noThintelo (CDC), ii-IEPs kunye nezicwangciso ezingama-504 zibonelela:

  • Ixesha elongezelelweyo kwiimvavanyo
  • Ii-asayinimenti ezilungiselelwe umntwana
  • Ukuqiniswa okuqinisekileyo
  • Imisebenzi encediswa yitekhnoloji
  • Ikhefu elongezelelweyo
  • Utshintsho kwigumbi lokufundela ukunciphisa umda wokuphazamiseka
  • Uncedo olongezelelekileyo ngombutho

Olunye uphononongo lusebenzise idatha kolu phando kwaye yafumanisa ukuba abantwana abaneminyaka emi-4 ukuya kweli-17 ubudala abane-ADHD bafumana olunye okanye nangaphezulu kwezi ndlela zilandelayo zokuziphatha:

  • I-31% ifumene unyango lokuziphatha kwabazali
  • I-39% ifumene uqeqesho kwizakhono zentlalo (njengenkxaso kwindlela onxibelelana ngayo nabanye)
  • I-30% ifumene ungenelelo loontanga (njengokufundisa oontanga)
  • I-20% ifumene unyango lokuziphatha

( Ijenali yePediatrics, 2018)

Izibalo zonyango lwe-ADHD

Eyona isebenzayo Unyango lwe-ADHD Yindibaniselwano yamayeza kunye nonyango lokuziphatha. Amayeza okunyusa, njengoAdderall kunye noRitalin, ahlala emiselwe kuqala. Ukuba izikhuthazi azisebenzi, umboneleli wokhathalelo lwempilo unokuzama amayeza angakhuthaziyo anje ngeStrattera. La mayeza achaphazela i-dopamine kunye / okanye i-norepinephrin yokunceda abaguli ukuba bagxile kwaye bazive bengenamandla.

Ukunyanga ngokuziphatha kwengqondo (CBT) yeyona ndlela ithandwayo yonyango lokuziphatha kwabantu, ngakumbi abantwana, abane-ADHD. Ingcali yonyango inokufundisa abantwana indlela yokuchaza izimvo kunye neemvakalelo zabo ngaphandle kokuphazamisa abanye. Abazali kunye nootitshala banokufumana ukuqonda nge-CBT yokufunda indlela yokuvuza indlela yokuziphatha efanelekileyo.

Ukusukela ngo-2016, iipesenti ezingama-77 zabantwana abane-ADHD abaneminyaka emi-2 ukuya kweli-17 bafumana unyango, malunga nesinye kwisithathu (32%) abafumana amayeza kunye nonyango lokuziphatha.

  • Iipesenti ezingama-62 zithatha amayeza e-ADHD, uninzi lwawo uneminyaka emi-6 ukuya kweli-11 ubudala.
  • Ama-30% athatha amayeza wedwa.
  • I-47% ifumana unyango lokuziphatha, uninzi lwabo luneminyaka emi-2 ukuya kwemi-5 ubudala.
  • I-15% ifumana unyango kuphela.

( Ijenali yoNyango loMntwana oNyangiweyo kunye nePsychology yoLutsha , 2018)

Uphando lwe-ADHD