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Ngaba uhlobo lwegazi lakho luthetha ntoni kwimpilo yakho?

Ngaba uhlobo lwegazi lakho luthetha ntoni kwimpilo yakho?Imfundo yezeMpilo

Ukuba yonke into oyaziyo ngegazi lakho kukuba ibomvu, unokufumana into ekufuneka uyenzile.

Igazi lenziwe ngezinto ezininzi ezahlukeneyo. Kukho iiseli ezibomvu nezimhlophe zegazi, ezithwala ioksijini kwaye zincede ekulweni nosulelo, ngokwahlukeneyo. Kukho iiplatelets, ezinceda igazi lakho lijiye. Kwaye kukho iplasma, ebonelela umzimba ngezinto ezifana nezakhamzimba kunye neehomoni. Iplasma yakho inee-antibodies, ezizizinto amajoni akho omzimba azisebenzisayo ukulwa nabahlaseli bamanye amazwe njengeentsholongwane kunye neebhaktiriya.



Igazi lakho likwanazo neantigen. Ezi ziiproteni kunye nezinye iimolekyuli ezikhoyo ngaphandle kweeseli zakho ezibomvu zegazi; zichonga uhlobo lwegazi onalo. Igazi liphinde lahlulwahlulwa yirhesus factor (aka, Rh factor). Ukuba igazi lakho liqulathe into ye-Rh D — eyona nto ixhaphakileyo nebalulekileyo kwizinto zeRH — unohlobo oluchanileyo lwegazi. Ukuba igazi lakho alikho, unodidi lwegazi olubi.



Ukwahlulahlula igazi ngokodidi kubalulekile kwizinto ezinje ngegazi, ezithatha indawo yegazi elilahlekileyo ngotyando, iingozi, kunye nokuphazamiseka kokopha. Ukuxuba uhlobo oluthile lwegazi olungahambelaniyo nolunye — enkosi kwizinto ezifana neeantigen neRh factor — kunokubulala.

Igazi elisempilweni liyimfuneko kubomi obunempilo. Ukusuka ngokuchwetheza uye kufakelo, nantsi into ekufuneka uyazi ngegazi lakho kunye nempilo yakho.



Zingaphi iintlobo zegazi ezikhoyo?

Uninzi lwabantu lunolunye lweentlobo zegazi ezisibhozo. Kwakhona, iintlobo zegazi zisekwe kwiiantigen (okanye ukunqongophala kwazo) ezifumaneka kwiiseli zakho zegazi nokuba igazi lakho liqulathe i-Rh D factor. Igazi lichwetheziwe ngokwe-ABO system group group. Ukuba igazi lakho lineeantigen, une-A uhlobo lwegazi. Ukuba une-B ​​antigens, unohlobo lwegazi olungu-B. Abanye abantu banazo zombini iantigens ze-A kunye ne-B, zibanika igazi le-AB. Kwaye abantu abane-O uhlobo lwegazi abanazo ii-antijeni ze-A okanye ze-B.

Ngolunye lolo hlobo luye lwaphulwa phantsi ngokusekelwe kwi-Rh factor. Umzekelo, abanye abantu bane-A positive igazi ngelixa abanye be-A negative. Inani elincinci kakhulu labantu linento ebizwa ngokuba yiRh null blood (ekwabizwa ngokuba ligolide yegolide), oko kuthetha ukuba ayinazo kwaphela iRh. Oku kunqabile kakhulu, kwenzeka kubantu abambalwa kuphela kwihlabathi liphela.

Kuqheleke okanye kunqabile njani uhlobo lwegazi ukwahluka ngokobuhlanga, imvelaphi yobuhlanga, kwaye yeyiphi indawo emhlabeni ohlala kuyo. Ngokwencwadi Amaqela egazi kunye neeSanti ezibomvu , uhlobo lwegazi B luxhaphakile kubantu baseAsia ngelixa uhlobo lwegazi A luxhaphakile kuMbindi naseMpuma Yurophu. E-US naseNtshona Yurophu, u-O olona hlobo luqhelekileyo lwegazi, njengoko kunjalo nokuba ne-Rh factor elungileyo. I-AB negative yinto enqabileyo. Kuthekani ngezinye iintlobo zegazi? Inkqubo ye- IZiko leGazi laseStanford ibonelela ngezi nkcukacha-manani.



Uhlobo lwegazi Ipesenti yabantu baseMelika abanodidi lwegazi
O + 37.4%
A + 35.7%
B + 8.5%
OKANYE 6.6%
TO- 6.3%
AB + 3.4%
B- 1.5%
UKUSUKA- 0.6%

Loluphi uhlobo lwegazi lam?

Uhlobo lwegazi lakho ulizuze njengelifa kubazali bakho-kwaye awungekhe ulitshintshe kwakhona kunokuba ungatshintsha umbala wamehlo akho.

Umzali ngamnye unikela nge-A, B, okanye i-O alleles (uhlobo oluthile lofuzo) kuhlobo lwegazi lomntwana. I-O allele ithathwa njengengaphezulu, okuthetha ukuba ayisoloko ichazwa. Ke ukuba owasetyhini one-OO alleles unomntwana kunye nendoda ene-BB alleles, umntwana uya kuba nohlobo lwegazi B.

Ngaba umntwana angaze abe nohlobo lwegazi olwahlukileyo kubazali bakhe? Ngokuqinisekileyo kunokwenzeka, utsho UDeva Sharma , MD, MS, ihematologist-oncologist eVanderbilt University Medical Centre eNashville, Tenn. Umzekelo, umama we-AO uya kuba nohlobo lwegazi A, kwaye utata we-BO uza kuba nohlobo lwegazi B. Nangona kunjalo, kukho amathuba angama-25% banokuba nosana olunegazi uhlobo O (kunye nelifa le-OO alleles), kunye ne-25% ithuba lokuba babe nosana olunoluhlobo lwegazi lwe-AB (kunye nelifa le-A allele ukusuka kumama kunye no-B balale kuyise ).



Loluphi olunye udibaniso olunokwenzeka? Isikolo seYunivesithi yaseEmory dibanisa le tshathi:

I-alleles zomzali # 1 I-alleles yomzali # 2 Uhlobo lweGazi loMntwana
I-AA okanye i-AO (Uhlobo A) I-AA okanye i-AO (Uhlobo A) Chwetheza u-A okanye u-O
I-AA okanye i-AO (Uhlobo A) I-BB okanye i-BO (Uhlobo B) Chwetheza A, B, AB, okanye O
I-AA okanye i-AO (Uhlobo A) AB (Uhlobo AB) Chwetheza A, B, okanye AB
I-AA okanye i-AO (Uhlobo A) EWE (Chwetheza u-O) Chwetheza u-A okanye u-O
I-BB okanye i-BO (Uhlobo B) I-BB okanye i-BO (Uhlobo B) Uhlobo lwe-B okanye u-O
I-BB okanye i-BO (Uhlobo B) AB (Uhlobo AB) Uhlobo lwe-B, A okanye u-AB
I-BB okanye i-BO (Uhlobo B) EWE (Chwetheza u-O) Uhlobo lwe-B okanye u-O
AB (Uhlobo AB) AB (Uhlobo AB) Chwetheza A, B, okanye AB
AB (Uhlobo AB) EWE (Chwetheza u-O) Chwetheza A okanye B
EWE (Chwetheza u-O) EWE (Chwetheza u-O) Uhlobo O

I-Rh factor yakho nayo izuze njengelifa, kwaye njengohlobo lwegazi lakho, uzuza njengelinye kwiar Rh alleles kumzali ngamnye. Ngoko umntwana ofumana i-Rh allele allele kumzali ngamnye uya kuba ne-Rh, kwaye omnye ofumana i-Rh al negative kumzali ngamnye uya kuba yi-Rh negative. Ukuba unayo i-Rh allele enye ene-positive kunye ne-negative (ekwenza ube ne-Rh positive, njengoko i-Rh negative allele ayiyi kuba yinto ephezulu), ungadlulisela enye ukuya kumntwana wakho. Ingaba okanye cha umntwana wakho uya kuba ne-Rh enesifo okanye engalunganga iya kuxhomekeka kwinto edluliswa ngomnye umzali.



Ndingalufumanisa njani udidi lwam lwegazi?

Zintathu iindlela onokufumana ngazo uhlobo lwegazi lakho.

  1. Umboneleli wakho wezempilo angayalela uvavanyo lohlobo lwegazi.
  2. Unokunikela ngegazi. Uvavanyo lokuchwetheza luyakwenziwa kwaye iziphumo zithunyelwe kuwe.
  3. Ungathenga uvavanyo lokuchwetheza egazini ekhaya. Ezi mvavanyo zihlala zibandakanya ukuhlaba umunwe wakho kunye nokubeka ithontsi legazi kwikhadi elinyangwe ngemichiza elikhangela iantigen kunye neRh factor. Utshatisa into oyibonayo ekhadini kwisikhokelo osinikeziweyo. Olunye uvavanyo lunokubandakanya isampulu yamathe.

Olu vavanyo alunangqondo, nangona kunjalo. Kukho iimeko ezithile apho sifumana ukungangqinelani ekuchwethezeni kwegazi, utshilo uGqirha Sharma. Oku kunokwenzeka kumntu onomhlaza wegazi, umzekelo, okanye kumntu oye watofelwa igazi kutshanje okanye ukufakelwa kweeseli.



Zeziphi iintlobo zegazi ezihambelana notofelo-gazi?

Ngelixa kubonakala ngathi kuyaphikisana, ukwazi uhlobo lwegazi lakho akubalulekanga kwaphela. Kuyamangalisa ukuba abantu abaninzi bahamba ubomi babo bonke ngaphandle kokwazi uhlobo lwegazi labo kwaye alubenzakalisi, utsho UJerry E. Squires , MD, Ph.D., unjingalwazi kwiYunivesithi yezoNyango eSouth Carolina eCharleston. Ngoba? Ngenxa yokuba akukho sibhedlele siza kutofelisela isigulana ngaphandle kokwenza uvavanyo kuqala ukufumanisa uhlobo lwegazi lomguli. Kwaye, hayi, isibhedlele asizukuthatha igama lesigulana kuhlobo lwegazi laso. Ndiyazi ukuba ndikwiqela legazi A, kodwa ukuba ndifuna igazi, iimvavanyo ziya kwenziwa kuqala ukuqinisekisa udidi lwam nokuba iiseli zegazi ezibomvu ezikhuselekileyo zikhethelwa utofelo-gazi lwam.

Ukufakwa kuhlobo lwegazi olungahambelani nolwakho kunokuba yingozi. Kungenxa yokuba izilwa-buhlungu ezisegazini langaphandle zinokubangela ukuba amajoni omzimba ahlasele ngokuchasene nayo, ibangele iingxaki ezithi zibekho. Zeziphi iintlobo zegazi ezihambelanayo kwaye zeziphi ezingahambelani? Ngoku ka Amaziko eGazi eSikhumbuzo , indibaniselwano ekhuselekileyo ibandakanya:



Uhlobo lwegazi Ngaba unokunikela ngegazi Unokufumana igazi kwi
A + A +, AB + A +, A-, O +, O-
TO- A-, A +, AB-, AB + KWI-
B + B +, AB + B +, B-, O +, O-
B- B-, B +, AB-, AB + B-, O-
AB + AB + AB +, AB-, A +, A-, B +, B-, O +, O-
UKUSUKA- AB-, AB + AB-, A-, B-, O-
O + O +, A +, B +, AB + O +, O-
OKANYE O-, O +, A +, A-, B +, B-, AB +, AB- OKANYE

Kwenzeka ntoni xa ungxamisekileyo ungenalo ixesha lovavanyo lohlobo lwegazi? Uya kufumana i-O- igazi. Ngaphandle kwazo naziphi na iantigen okanye iR Rh D, igazi le-O liyahambelana nazo zonke ezinye iintlobo zegazi. Ngeso sizathu, abantu abane-O-igazi kuthethwa ngabo njengabaxhasi kwindalo iphela.

Ngokwe- Umnqamlezo obomvu waseMelika , kwimizuzwana emibini umntu kweli lizwe ufuna utofelo-gazi. Oko kuyenza iminikelo yegazi ebaluleke kakhulu. Ukuba usempilweni, nceda ube ngumnikeli ngegazi, uGqirha Squires uyabongoza. Akukho sithathe indawo yegazi, kwaye ukuba abantu abanikeli siyakuphela. Oko bekuya kuthetha ukuba akukho kuqhaqho, kungabikho kufakelwa, kwaye akukho nyango lwenzingo.

Luthini uhlobo lwegazi lam ngempilo yam?

Ngaba uhlobo lwegazi lakho lunokukwenza ukuba uthambekele kwizifo ezithile? Ngelixa ezinye iingcali zisithi naluphi na uhlobo olunokwenzeka lokudlala kwegazi kwimpilo alubalulekanga konke konke, abanye bathi kukho unxibelelwano olusemthethweni.

Iiantigen zeABO ezenza uhlobo lwegazi lethu aziboniswanga kuphela kumphezulu weeseli ezibomvu zegazi, kodwa zikwakhona nakwezinye izicwili zomntu, utshilo uGqirha Sharma. Oku kubonelela ngesiseko sohlobo lwegazi lwe-ABO ukuze lube nokubaluleka kweklinikhi kwiziphumo ezahlukeneyo zempilo ngaphandle kwenkqubo yegazi.

Zithini ezinye zezi ziphumo zempilo? Ngoku ka Amayeza asemantla ntshona , izifundo zibonisa ukuba:

  • Abantu abanohlobo O Igazi linomngcipheko ophantsi wesifo sentliziyo ngelixa abantu abane-B kunye ne-AB bephezulu.
  • Abantu abane-A kunye ne-AB igazi linezinga eliphezulu lomhlaza wesisu.
  • Abantu abanohlobo A lwegazi unokuba nexesha elinzima kunokuba abanye belawula uxinzelelo kuba zihlala zivelisa iihormone zoxinzelelo lwehortisol.

Kodwa xa kufikwa kudidi lwegazi kwaye I-COVID-19 izigulane-isifo somzuzu-kukho iindaba ezilungileyo. Ngokutsho kophando lwamva nje oluvela kubaphengululi beHarvard Medical School abapapashwe kwiphephancwadi Izibhengezo zeHematology , Uhlobo lwegazi alunampembelelo kwindlela umntu agula ngayo ene-coronavirus (ngaphandle kwamabango okuqala anokuba njalo).

FUNDA OKULANDELAYO: Njani — kwaye ngoba kutheni kufuneka unikele ngegazi ngexesha lobhubhane