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Ubalo lokungachumi 2021: Zingaphi izibini ezichaphazelekayo kukungachumi?

Ubalo lokungachumi 2021: Zingaphi izibini ezichaphazelekayo kukungachumi?Iindaba

Yintoni ukungachumi? | Ukwanda kokungachumi | Iinkcukacha manani zehlabathi zokungachumi | Iinkcukacha manani zaseU.S. | Ubalo lokungachumi ngokwesini | Ukungabikho kobudala ngokobudala | Ubalo lokungachumi ngokobuhlanga nobuhlanga | Iingxaki eziqhelekileyo | Iinkcukacha-manani ze-IVF | Iindleko | Oonobangela | Unyango | Izifo | Ii-FAQ | Uphando

Ukungachumi, okanye ukungakwazi ukukhulelwa emva kokuzama unyaka omnye, kunokuba nzima kubantu ngabanye nakwizibini ukuba zidlule. Ukungachumi kuqhelekile, kwaye kunokuthetha nokuba ukhulelwe kodwa uzalwe uswelekile okanye ukhuphe isisu. Makhe sijonge ezinye zeenkcukacha-manani zokungachumi ukuze siqonde ngcono ukuba yintoni kwaye ichaphazela njani abantu.



Yintoni ukungachumi?

Ukungachumi kukungakwazi ukukhulelwa nasemva kokuba usabelana ngesondo rhoqo kwaye ungakhuselekanga unyaka omnye. Ukungachumi kunokubachaphazela abesilisa nabasetyhini kwaye kuhlala kufunyaniswa ukuba umntu akakwazi ukukhulelwa. Abanye abantu basetyhini banokuba nomjikelo wokuya exesheni omde kakhulu okanye omfutshane kakhulu, kwaye ukuba neengxaki ezithile zempilo ezinje ngesifo sokudumba kwenwebu okanye i-uterine fibroids kunokubangela umntu ukuba angachumi.

Oogqirha banokuqhuba iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zovavanyo ukunceda ekuchongeni ukuba yintoni enokubangela iingxaki zokuchuma komntu okanye isibini. I-Transvaginal ultrasounds inokukunceda ekuboneni ukubakho kwesibeleko, iimvavanyo zegazi zinokujonga amanqanaba e-hormone angaqhelekanga, kwaye uhlalutyo lobudoda lunokubona ukungalunganga kwembewu emadodeni enokuba idlala indima ekungachumi. Unyango lokungachumi luhlala luphucula, kwaye uninzi lwabantu ekugqibeleni luyakwazi ukukhulelwa ngempumelelo.

Kuqheleke kangakanani ukungachumi?

  • Kuqikelelwa ukuba iipesenti ezili-15 zezibini ziya kuba nengxaki yokukhulelwa. (Impilo ye-UCLA, i-2020)
  • Kumhlaba jikelele, izibini ezitshatileyo ezizizigidi ezingama-48.5 zifumana ukungachumi. ( Ukuzala i-Biological Endocrinology , 2015)
  • Phantse i-9% yamadoda kunye ne-10% yabasetyhini abaneminyaka eli-15 ukuya kwengama-44 baxela iingxaki zokuzala eUnited States. (CDC, 2013 kunye neOfisi yezeMpilo yabaseTyhini, 2019)

Ukungabikho kwenzalo kwihlabathi liphela

  • Amazwe ali-9 kwali-10 awona manqanaba aphezulu okuchuma aseAfrika alandelwa yiAfghanistan. (I-Arhente yezoBuntlola, 2017)
  • I-Yurophu eseMazantsi, iMpuma Yurophu, kunye neMpuma yeAsia zezona zinamazinga asezantsi okuzala kwihlabathi elinomyinge wabantwana abayi-1.5 kwabasetyhini. (UNFPA, 2018)
  • ISweden yenye yezona zinga liphezulu lokuchuma eYurophu (kufutshane ne-1.9 yabantwana kumfazi ngamnye). (UNFPA, 2018)
  • Isibini esinye kwisine kumazwe asakhasayo sichaphazeleka kukungachumi. (WHO, 2004)

Ubalo lokungachumi eUnited States

  • I-US ine-avareji yabantwana abayi-1.87 abazelwe ngabasetyhini. (I-Arhente yezoBuntlola, 2017)
  • Phantse iipesenti ezingama-85 zezibini ziya kuba nakho ukukhulelwa kunyaka wabo wokuqala wokuzama. (Impilo ye-UCLA, i-2020)
  • Ukongeza, iipesenti ezisixhenxe zezibini ziya kuba nakho ukukhulelwa kunyaka wabo wesibini wokuzama. (Impilo ye-UCLA, i-2020)
  • Ukungachumi kuchaphazela iipesenti ezili-10 zabasetyhini abaphakathi kweminyaka eli-15 nengama-44 e-US (CDC, 2019)
  • Isiqingatha (48%) sabantu abatshatileyo abanengxaki yokukhulelwa abayithathi imeko yabo njengobudlolo. (Umntu ongatshatanga, 2020)

Ubalo lokungachumi ngokwesini

  • Njengoko kuxeliwe yi-9% yamadoda aneminyaka eyi-15 ukuya kuma-44 kunye ne-10% yabasetyhini abakwiminyaka yobudala efanayo, ukungachumi kufana nokuxhaphaka emadodeni njengoko kunjalo kubafazi base-US (CDC, 2013 kunye neOfisi yezeMpilo yabaseTyhini, 2019)
  • I-30% yamatyala okungachumi anokuchazwa kuphela kwabasetyhini, i-30% inokubangelwa yindoda kuphela, i-30% inokubangelwa kukudityaniswa kwamaqabane omabini, kwaye i-10% yamatyala anesizathu esingaziwayo. (Iimpendulo zokuchuma, 2020)

Ukungabikho kobudala ngokobudala

Ngokwesiqhelo, abaguli bam abangachumanga bancinci njengama-20s abo kwaye baneminyaka yobudala ukuya kwiminyaka eyi-40, uSara Mucowski, MD, ingcali kwezokuzala IDallas IVF .



  • 1 kwabasetyhini abasempilweni abaneminyaka engama-20 ukuya kwengama-30 ubudala baya kukhulelwa kuwo nawuphi na umjikelo wokuya esikhathini. (Ikholeji yaseMelika yeOstetrics kunye neGynecologists, 2018)
  • 1 kwabasetyhini abasempilweni kwi-40s yabo baya kukhulelwa kuwo nawuphi na umjikelo wokuya esikhathini. (Ikholeji yaseMelika yeOstetrics kunye neGynecologists, 2018)
  • Ngokubanzi, ukuchuma kuqala ukuncipha kwabasetyhini abaninzi abaneminyaka engama-20 ukuya kwengama-30 kwaye kuyehla ngokukhawuleza emva kweminyaka engama-35. (Umbutho waseMelika woNyango lokuZala, ngo-2012)
  • Amaqabane apho iqabane eliyindoda lineminyaka engama-40 okanye ngaphezulu kunokwenzeka ukuba babe nobunzima bokukhulelwa. (CDC, 2019)
  • Umgangatho wobudoda ngokubanzi awubi yingxaki emadodeni de kube emva kweminyaka engama-60. (Umbutho waseMelika woNyango lokuZala, 2012)

Ubalo lokungachumi ngokobuhlanga nobuhlanga

  • Abasetyhini baseHawaii nabasePacificer Islander babenelona zinga liphezulu lokuchuma e-US kwi-2018 ilandelwa ngabantu baseMelika baseMelika nabaseMelika abaMnyama.
  • Abantu baseMelika abaMhlophe nabaseAsia babenawona manqanaba asezantsi okuzala ngo-2018.

(IStista, 2019)

Iingxaki eziqhelekileyo zokuzala

Ukungachumi kunye neengxaki zokungachumi, njengokuphuphuma kwesisu, kunokuchaphazela kakubi impilo yomntu ngokubanzi kunye nomgangatho wobomi. Izibini ezininzi ezifuna ukuqala usapho kwaye azikwazi ukukhawula ziya kuba noxinzelelo lwengqondo kunye noluntu olunokuthi lube nefuthe elibi kubomi babo.

  • Ukungachumi inzala sesinye sezizathu eziphambili zokuqhawula umtshato phakathi kwabantu abatshatileyo. ( Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe ye-Biomedicine yokuzala , 2020)
  • Ukuya kuthi ga kwi-60% yabantu abangenazintsholongwane baxele iimpawu zengqondo ezinamanqanaba aphezulu kakhulu oxinzelelo kunye noxinzelelo kunabantu abachumileyo. ( Unyango lwezonyango, Ngo-2014)
  • Phantse iipesenti ezingama-41 zabasetyhini abangazaliyo banexinzelelo. ( Ezempilo zeBMC yaBasetyhini (2004)
  • Phantse iipesenti ezingama-87 zabasetyhini abangazalanga banexhala. ( Ezempilo zeBMC yaBasetyhini (2004)
  • Abasetyhini abakhulelweyo nge-IVF banethuba eliphezulu lokuzala ngaphambi kwexesha. (I-Ultrasound kwi-Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2017)

Iinkcukacha-manani ze-IVF

  • E-US, i-12% yabasetyhini abaneminyaka yobudala bokuzala basebenzise inkonzo yokungachumi (CDC, 2017).
  • Phantse iipesenti ezi-2 zokuzalwa okuphilayo e-US ziziphumo zobuchwephesha bokuncedisa ukuzala (ART). (ICDC, 2017)
  • Abasetyhini abaneminyaka engama-30 ukuya kuma-33 banethuba lokuphumelela (58%) ngexesha labo lokuqala lomjikelo we-IVF xa kuthelekiswa nabasetyhini bamaqela amanye ubudala. (Izisombululo zokuchuma)
  • Kwisifundo esinye sabasetyhini abafuna unyango lokuchuma, i-4% yabasetyhini basebenzise amayeza kuphela, i-21% basebenzise i-IUI, i-53% basebenzise i-IVF, kwaye i-22% ayikhange ilandele unyango olusekwe kumjikelo. ( Ukuchuma nokuchuma (2011)

Iindleko zonyango lokungachumi

  • Zonke iindleko zonyango zokungachumi zinokuvela kwi-5,000 yeedola ukuya kwi-73,000 yeedola ( Ukuchuma nokuchuma (2011)
  • Isigulana esiqhelekileyo sihamba kwimijikelezo emibini ye-IVF, sizisa iindleko zizonke ze-IVF (kubandakanya iinkqubo kunye namayeza) phakathi kwe- $ 40,000 kunye ne- $ 60,000. (Umntu ongatshatanga, 2020)
  • Uqikelelo lwe-85% yeendleko ze-IVF zihlala zihlawulwa epokothweni. ( Ukuchuma nokuchuma (2011)
  • Abantwana be-IVF bavame ukwamkelwa ezibhedlele kunabangengobantwana be-IVF. Iindleko zokhathalelo lwasemva kokubeleka komntwana kwi-singleton IVF yabaphantse yaphindeka kabini kunaleyo ye-singleton engeyiyo i-IVF. ( Ukuzaliswa kwabantu, 2007)

Oonobangela bokungachumi

Ngokophando lwe-SingleCare lokungachumi, iipesenti ezingama-25 zezibini azisazi unobangela weengxaki zabo zokuzala.



Ukungachumi kwabasetyhini kuhlala kubangelwa ziingxaki ezinokubangelwa kukungqubana kwe-ovulation njenge-polycystic ovary syndrome ( I-PCOS ), Ukungonelanga kwe-ovari ephambili (POI), okanyehyperprolactinemia. Ukungachumi kwabasetyhini nako kunokubangelwa kukungaziphathi kakuhle kwesibeleko okanye komlomo wesibeleko, ukonakala kwetyhubhu ye-fallopian, i-uterine fibroids, i-endometriosis, ukuya exesheni kwangoko, izicwili zomqala, kunye nonyango lomhlaza okanye uxinzelelo olukhulu lwengqondo.

Ukungasebenzi kakuhle kwe-Ovulatory kuqhelekile, ngakumbi kubunzima esijamelana nabo njengoluntu olunobunzima obandayo; Ukuthwala ubunzima obugqithisileyo kuhlala kuchaphazela ukusebenza kwe-ovulating, utshilo uJessica Scotchie, MD, umseki weqela Amayeza okuzala eTennessee Ngubani oqinisekiswe yibhodi ephindwe kabini kwi-endocrinology yokuzala kunye nokungachumi (REI).Abasetyhini baqala kwakhona iintsapho zabo kubudala obudala ngokomndilili (uninzi lukulinde ukuya kubudala beminyaka engama-30, ngelixa izizukulwana zangaphambili ziqala iintsapho eziphakathi kweminyaka engama-20-25). Ukuqala usapho kubudala obudala kunokubangela ukuba umgangatho weqanda kunye nokungasebenzi kakuhle kwe-ovari kudlale indima enkulu kukungachumi. Iingxaki ze-anatomical ezinje nge-endometriosis kunye neetyhubhu ezivaliweyo ze-fallopian zixhaphake kakhulu, zibonwa kwi-15 ukuya kwi-20% yezigulana.

Ukungachumi kwamadoda kudla ngokubangelwa ngamatyhalarha angasebenzi kakuhle. I-Varicocele yimeko apho imithambo kumatyhalarha endoda inkulu kakhulu, ebangela ukuba ishushu, echaphazela ukubala kwesidoda kunye nemilo. Umgangatho wesidoda unokuchaphazeleka nakwimeko yezempilo enjengeswekile, iziphene zemfuza, kunye namasende angafunekiyo. Ukuba isidoda asihanjiswanga ngokufanelekileyo ngenxa yokuphuma ngaphambi kwexesha okanye iingxaki zesakhiwo, oku kunokuchaphazela nokuzala. Nokuba ukuvezwa kwendalo yimichiza enetyhefu okanye i-pesticides kunokuchaphazela impilo yokuzala kunye nomgangatho wesidoda.



Ukunyanga ukungachumi

Iindaba ezimnandi zezokuba, yi-10% kuphela yamatyala okuba nenzalo anganyangekiyo; Zizo ezo iingxaki eziwela phantsi kwe-10% yeambrela yamatyala okuzala ngenxa yokungaziwa, utshilo uJolene Caufield, umcebisi omkhulu e Usempilweni uHoward , Umbutho ongenzi nzuzo wokuphila ngokusempilweni, uqeqesho lobomi, kunye nokhathalelo lwempilo, kubandakanya impilo yezesondo. Eziseleyo ezingama-90% zinokunyangwa zize zilawulwe ngenxa yenkqubela phambili yezonyango kule minyaka ingama-30 idlulileyo. Ngena, kwi-vitro fertilization (okanye IVF). Le nkqubo lolona nyango lucetyiswayo lokungachumi kumacala omabini.

Kuphononongo lokungachumi lwe-SingleCare's 2020, 60% yabaphenduli baxele ukuba bafumene uhlobo oluthile lonyango lokuchuma. I-IVF, amayeza okuchuma, kunye nokungeniswa kwe-ovulation yayiyeyona nyango mithathu ixhaphakileyo phakathi kwabavavanyi. Ababini kwisithathu sabaphenduli bazamile amayeza endalo okanye amanye amayeza ukubanceda ukuba bakhawule.



In vitro fertilization (IVF), inrauterine insemination (IUI), insemination engeyiyo (AI), kunyeI-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) zonke iindlela zokhetho ezibe yimpumelelo kakhulu ekuncedeni abantu ukuba bakhulelwe. Kukho izinto ezintsha eziphuculweyo kwi-IVF ukunceda ukuba zisebenze ngakumbi, ezinje ukumiliselwa kwangaphambili kofuzo , kwaye abaphandi baqhubeka ngokukhangela iindlela ezintsha zokwenza unyango lokungachumi.

Ukongeza kwi-ART kunye neenkqubo zotyando, unyango lokungachumi kubandakanya indibaniselwano yamayeza. Nazi ezinye zeyeza eziqhelekileyo ezisetyenziselwa ukunyanga ukungabikho komntwana:



  • ICrinone (iprogesterone gel)
  • ICetrotide (cetrorelix)
  • Clomid (clomiphene citrate))
  • IMetformin yePCOS

I-Epidemiology yokungachumi

Ukungachumi kuya kusiba yinto eqhelekileyo, ngakumbi kuba uninzi lwezibini zilinde ukuba nabantwana kamva ebomini. Isibini kwisine kwisibini kumazwe asakhasayo achatshazelwa kukungachumi, kwaye malunga Amaqabane angama-48.5 ezigidi amava okuzala kwihlabathi liphela. Abanye oogqirha kunye nabaphandi bangathi ukungachumi kuyanda ubhubhane, kwaye unyango lokungachumi luyathandwa ngakumbi njengoko izibini zikhangela iindlela zokuqalisa usapho.

Imibuzo yokungabikho kwengqondo kunye neempendulo

Ngaba ukunyuka kwama-infertility kuyanda?

Ukungachumi kuyanda. Ukusetyenziswa kwetekhnoloji yokunceda inzala (ART) zizibini ezingazaliyo kuyanda nge 5% ukuya kwi-10% ngonyaka. Ngo-1950, kwakukho umndilili wabantwana abahlanu kumfazi ngamnye kwihlabathi liphela, ngokuka amazwe adbeneyo . Kukho umndilili wabantwana babini kumfazi ngamnye kwihlabathi liphela ngo-2020.



E-US, kuye kwakho ukwehla kwexesha elide kwinqanaba lokuzalwa kunye nokuzala okuye kwabangelwa zizinto ezininzi kubandakanya imfundo eqhubele phambili kunye namathuba emisebenzi yabasetyhini, umtshato kamva, ukufikelela okuphucukileyo kukhulelwa, ukulibaziseka ukuzala abantwana, kunye nokwehla kobukhulu bosapho, Ugqirha Mucowski utsho.

Zingaphi izibini ezingazaliyo?

Malunga 12% ukuya kwi-15% izibini azinakho ukukhulelwa emva kokuzama ukukhulelwa unyaka omnye.

Ngaba ukungachumi kuyalinyusa izinga loqhawulo mtshato?

Kwezinye izifundo, ukungachumi kunxibelelana nenqanaba lokuqhawula umtshato phakathi kwezibini ezingafumani bantwana.

Yintoni enokubangela ukungachumi kumfazi?

Ukungachumi kwabasetyhini kuhlala kubangelwa yi ukusilela ukuvumba , kodwa inokuba zizifo, i-endometriosis, inkqubo yokuzala, okanye ezinye iingxaki kumjikelo wokuya exesheni.

Ngaba lukhona unyango lokungachumi?

Unyango lokungachumi, kubandakanya amayeza kunye neenkqubo ezinje nge-IVF, zinokunceda abantu abatshatileyo boyise ukungachumi kwaye bafumane ukukhulelwa. Nokuba umntu uza kukwazi ukoyisa ukungachumi kuya kuxhomekeka kwiimeko zabo ezizodwa, ubudala kunye nembali yezonyango.

Uphando